Anatomic landmarks for localisation of the branches of the facial nerve
It may also contribute to drooling and difficulty with swallowing because of an inability to maintain labial closure during the oral preparatory phase. December 31, Revisions: They then run up the vertebral canal to the level of C2, where they exit and wind around the lateral masses of the atlas, to enter the skull through the foramen magnum. As a result, a commonly used rule of thumb in clinical practice is to place incisions either two-finger breadths or 2cm, below the inferior border of the mandible [ 27 ]. View full topic index. Which of the following is an extracranial branch of the facial nerve? This anatomical relationship explains how certain disorders of facial nerve motor function can be associated with abducens palsy.
In all specimens, the BN was found to be Its petrous pathway includes a labyrinthine segment, a horizontal tympanic segment and a vertical mastoid segment until the stylomastoid foramen. While the anatomy of the facial nerve has been extensively studied in the literature, a variety of anatomic landmarks have been identified with little consensus regarding those that are optimal and safest for use intraoperatively. Our aim has been to delineate the specific anatomical locations of this nerve with respect to the surrounding soft tissues and bony landmarks. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 - Information and Services, www. Zygomatic branch Few studies have examined the zygomatic nerve ZN in relation to palpable landmarks. The motor root fibers extend medially and cephalad toward the abducens nucleus.
Peripheral impairment outside of a traumatic context is most often due to Bell's palsy. Personal information regarding our website's visitors, including their identity, is confidential. The approach to removing a VS for hearing preservation requires cutting the facial nerve. In view of the frequency of vasculo-nervous contacts in the healthy subject, the conflict is considered to be pathological only at the REZ level 2 to 3 mm after the emergence of the nerve from the brain stem , since this contact is perpendicular and involves a deformation of the nerve. In axial section, the muscle of the tensor tympani should not be confused with the tympanic segment continuing towards other segments on the over and underlying segments. Add to My Bibliography. For each variable, percentiles 5 and 95 for the difference between the hemifaces were also calculated and expressed as percentages.